3000 BC - Neolithic findings in the Cave of Ághio Gálas (a village located in the northwest region of the island)
2600-2000 BC - Early findings in the area of Emboriós (which lies in the southeast region of Chios). The first king of Chios was Amphiklos or Amphialos, a man that came to the island following an oracle. Then, the Ionians from Asia Minor inhabited Samos and Chios, connecting thus the island with the rest of the Ionian towns of that time. Around the 7th century BC, Chios not only flourishes in the maritime sector, but in other sectors as well. It is said that Homer passed by the island and that Chios inspired the Homeric epics.
Chios, unlike other places, had no colonies. The Chians were creating what was called in Greek “emboría” (meaning trading posts) and they were very famous for their wine and mastic, two of their most popular products which contributed to the flourishment of the island flourish.
1600-1100 BC - An ancient settlement found in the southern part of the island, in the area of Fana, is probably a remnant of the Mycenaean period.
600 BC - Around 600 BC, the “Great Clause” (Megali Ritra) was established on the island. The first democracy in the world was based on this law. It is said that Solon, prior to establishing the democratic laws and institutions in Athens, visited Chios and used a great deal of the democratic principles of the Great Clause.
493 BC Destruction of Chios by the Persians. Chios then became an ally of the Athenians in the Athenian Alliance. The Chians enjoyed prosperity over the next few years.
431 BC-146 BC - At the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, the Chians were allied with the Athenians until the defeat of Sicily, when they joined forces with the Spartans. When the Antalkidios Peace was signed, Chios was again allied with the Athenians. At the time of Alexander the Great, there was a Macedonian garrison in Chios. When Alexander passed away, his successors took over and for Chios, the period of decline was just beginning.
146 BC - Imposition of Roman rule.
250 AD - Martyrdom of St Isidoros during the expulsion of Christians. It is said that the mastic tree (called Schínos in the Chian dialect) started to cry when it ‘saw’ the Saint’s body dragged under it.
650 AD - Destruction of Chios by the Arabs.
1042-1055 AD - The Emperor Constantine Monomachos keeps his promise and begins building the Nea Moni Monastery. The Emperor had promise the two monks that found the Holy Icon of the Virgin hanging from branch of myrtle, that should he regain his throne (as they predicted), he would furnish the Monastery with a dowry.
1089 AD - Raid by Turkish pirates
1124-5 AD - Raid by the Venetians
1170-71 AD - Second raid by the Venetians
1204 AD - The Francs threaten Chios
1261 AD - According to the Treaty of Nympheon Chios is given to the Genoese, who are permitted by the emperor to maintain an establishment there, including a palace, a church, gardens, public baths, dwelling places and their own consul.
1292 AD - Raid of Chios by the Sicilian, Roger de Loria.
1300 AD - Raid of Chios by the Turks
1303 AD - Raid by the Catalan, Roger da Flor.
1304-1329 AD - Chios comes under the temporary rule of the Genoese. A treaty with the Emperor concedes to the Genoese a ten-year right to “protect” the island provided it remains under Byzantine sovereignty.
1346 - 1566 AD - Genoese rule. Chios prospers during the Genoese period. A commercial Genoese firm called Maóna, maintains control of the island’s commerce. Although they oppress the inhabitants, they manage to organize the commerce of mastic and the rest of the products. They bring to the island the cultivation of citrus trees and the raising of silkworms. Castle villages are created in the South to protect mastic production and mansions are established in the area of Kambos. The population increases and the standard of living is very high. Although the Turks conquered the Byzantine Empire and attacked Chios as well, the Genoese manage to keep them away.
1566 - 1821 AD - Turkish rule. The Chians are still oppressed, however, they are granted privileges due to the production of mastic. The Turks imposed taxes on the Chians and forced them to pay the taxes with mastic. When the Greek Revolution against the Turks broke out in 1821, the Chians did not participate.
1822 AD - When Lykourgos Logothetis, a Greek rebel from Samos, came to Chios, he tried to free the island with the help of Antonis Bournias. This effort failed and Admiral Kapudan Pasha Kara Ali brought the Turkish fleet in the island and had started to burn, destroy and massacre the Chians over a period of 15 days in order to teach them a lesson for their disobedience and ungratefulness. Over 25,000 people lose their lives during the Massacre of Chios. Soon thereafter, Constantine Kanaris, from the neighboring island of Psara, leads his fleet to Chios and burns the Turkish flagship in the port of the island. Admiral Kapudan Pasha Kara Ali, as well as other Turkish officials, lose their lives. They were all buried in the Turkish cemetery that lies in the Castle of Chios town.
1823 - 1912 AD - The Chians that had managed to escape from the Turks come back in the island in 1832 and begin to rebuild their lives. The harsh freeze of 1852 destroyed the crop while the earthquake of 1881 destroyed everything that had been left standing in addition to taking the lives of 3,500 people. Nevertheless, the Chians did not give up and in 1912, the island was liberated and was united with the Greek State.
1939 - 1945 AD - During the 2nd World War, the Chians fought against the Germans and people escape to the Middle East. Chios achieved its liberation in 1944 along with the rest of the Greek State.
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